LBF Case Studies

Sources & Bibliography

The Legler Benbough Foundation commissioned these case studies and produced them with the assistance of Vantage Point Historical Services, Inc. The foundation’s board of directors opened the LBF’s archives for research. This collection dated back to 1985 and included board minutes, memos, and grants reports; as well as correspondence between the LBF, its partner foundations, and grantees. The case studies were also informed by telephone and in-person oral history interviews with individuals who either served on the foundation’s board of directors, were affiliated with grantee institutions and organizations, or represented other grantmakers in and around San Diego. All quotes used in these case studies have been edited for clarity and approved by the interviewee. Peter Ellsworth and other members of the LBF board including Pat Crowell, John Rebelo and Bob Kelly commented on early drafts, as did Emily Young, Nancy Jamison, and stakeholders from each of the LBF’s grantmaking areas. Mary Walshok provided valuable insights on philanthropy in San Diego and the work of the Legler Benbough Foundation. In addition to coverage in the San Diego Union Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Chula Vista Star, Oceanside North County Times, Escondido Times-Advocate, North County Times, and other news sources, the following books and publications helped provide context and informed the analysis of each case study.

Case Study I Sources

Building Relationships Anchored in Trust and Responsibility: The LBF Approach to Governance and Grantmaking

Elizabeth T. Boris, “Creation and Growth: A Survey of Private Foundations,” in Elizabeth T. Boris and Teresa Jean Odendahl, America’s Wealthy and the Future of Foundations (New York: Council on Foundations, 1987).

Eric John Abrahamson, Beyond Charity: A Century of Philanthropic Innovation (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2013).

Evelyn Brody and John Tyler, How Public Is Private Philanthropy?, Second Edition (Washington, DC: Philanthropy Roundtable, 2012).

Francis Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity (New York: The Free Press, 1995).

Nicholas Mirkovich, “Urban Growth in the San Diego Region,” Economic Geography 17, no. 3 (July 1941): 308-310.

Joel J. Orosz, The Insider’s Guide to Grantmaking: How Foundations Find, Fund, and Manage Effective Programs (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000).

John W. Nason, Foundation Trusteeship: Service in the Public Interest (New York: The Foundation Center, 1989).

Case Study II Sources

Building Resident Capacity: The LBF and the Diamond Neighborhoods

“$1.3M Pledged to Local Teacher Training Program,” Fox5 San Diego, December 14, 2015, accessed October 14, 2019,

Adrian Florido, “Top Execs Out at Major Southeastern San Diego Nonprofit,” Voice of San Diego, August 28, 2011, accessed November 1, 2019,

Amanda Brandeis, “San Diego’s graffiti arts park continues to change lives 20 years later,” ABC10News San Diego, May 22, 2019, accessed November 1, 2019,

Anne Stuhldreher, “Polishing Up the Diamond,” Stanford Social Innovation Review, 3, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 52-54.

Andrea Yoder Clark and Tracey Bryan, “San Diego’s Diamond Neighborhoods and the Jacobs Center for Neighborhood Innovation,” in Ezekiel Dixon-Roman and Edmund W. Gordon, eds., Thinking Comprehensively About Education: Spaces of Educative Possibility and Their Implications for Public Policy (New York: Routledge, 2012), 88.

Carissa Casares and Maureen Cavanaugh, “‘Rites of Passage’ Exhibit Celebrates Cultures of Southeast San Diego,” KPBS, April 4, 2013, accessed November 1, 2019,

Elizabeth Castillo and Angela Titus, “Activating the Power of Place: A Case Study of Market Creek,” The Foundation Review, 7, no.3 (2015): 8.

Heidi Echeverria, “Trauma Informed Journey-Urban Collective,” San Diego County Aces Connection, January 20, 2017.

Jennifer Vanica, Courageous Philanthropy: Going Public in a Closely Held World (Bloomington: iUniverse, 2018).

Mario Koran, “How Teach for America Did Its San Diego Homework,” Voice of San Diego, February 4, 2014, accessed October 14, 2019,

Ronald A. Heifetz, John V. Kania, and Mark Kramer, “Leading Boldly,” Sanford Social Innovation Review 2, no. 3 (Winter 2004), accessed November 1, 2019,

Thomas H. Watts, “The Elementary Institute of Science, 1964-1970,” Journal of Science and Children 7, no. 8 (May 1970):164-70.

Case Study III Sources

Promoting Institutional Collaboration: The LBF in Balboa Park

“Balboa Park Archiving Content with Front Porch Digital,” GovtVideo, December 17, 2009.

Balboa Park Cultural Partnership, “Helping To Build A Framework for the Successful Governance of Balboa Park,” report presented to the Balboa Park Committee (October 16, 2008).

Center for City Park Excellence of the Trust for Public Land, “Keeping Balboa Park Magnificent In Its Second Century: A Look at Management, Fundraising, and Private Partnerships at Five other Major US City Parks,” August 2006, accessed August 27, 2019,

Center for City Park Excellence of the Trust for Public Land, “The Soul of San Diego: Keeping Balboa Park Magnificent in Its Second Century,” accessed October 7, 2019,

David Garrick, “Arts Groups Demand More Money from City,” Chicago Tribune, May 24, 2017, accessed September 11, 2019,

“Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit Is Extended Into January,” Arizona Republic, December 18, 2007, 11.

“History of the Balboa Park Conservancy,” accessed August 13, 2019,

Iris Wilson Engstrand, San Diego: California’s Cornerstone (San Diego: Sunbelt Publications, 2005).

Jack Williams, “L. Benbough mortuary owner, arts patron, dies,” San Diego Union Tribune, June 23, 1998, n.p.;

James Chute, “Innovative Online Effort Links Museums and Attractions to Visitors, Each Other,” San Diego Union-Tribune, April 17, 2011.

James Chute, “Innovator Rich Cherry Leaving Balboa Park Online Collaborative,” San Diego Union-Tribune, May 4, 2012.

James Chute, “Museum of Man Retooling Itself for the 21st Century,” Chicago Tribune, April 22, 2012, accessed September 10, 2019,

James Chute, “The Story Behind the Sorolla,” San Diego Union Tribune, February 21, 2015, accessed September 5, 2019,

League of California Cities, “Open & Public V: A Guide to the Ralph M. Brown Act, Revised April 2016,” accessed October 25, 2019,

“Legler Benbough Legacy,”, accessed October 12, 2019,

Lisa Halverstadt, “Bids to Remake the Plaza de Panama Are $20M Higher Than Expected,” Voice of San Diego, January 22, 2019, accessed August 14, 2019,

Mary Lindenstein Walshok and Abraham J. Shragge, Invention & Reinvention: The Evolution of San Diego’s Innovation Economy (Stanford University Press, 2014).

Mike Allen, “City Ends Pact With Balboa Celebration Group,” San Diego Business Journal, May 19, 2014, 10.

Rich Cherry, “A Walk in the Park: The Balboa Park Online Collaborative First Year Report,” accessed October 12, 2019,

Roger M. Showley, Balboa Park: A Millennium History (Carlsbad, CA: Heritage Media Corp., 1999), 210-11.

Roger Showley, “Lang quits Balboa Park position,” San Diego Union-Tribune, May 27, 2011.

Roger Showley, “Balboa Park Central, Conservancy merging,” San Diego Union-Tribune, June 5, 2013.

“Roots, Reality of Black Womanhood,” Los Angeles Times, March 14, 2009.

“SD Museum to House Romanov Jewels,” North Country Times, August 2, 1997.

Steven P. Erie, Vladimir Kogan, and Scott A. Mackenzie, Paradise Plundered: Fiscal Crisis and Governance Failures in San Diego (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011).

“Vivian Kung Haga,” Museums and the Web Archive, accessed September 9, 2019,

Case Study IV Sources

The LBF in Science and Innovation

Andrew Gazdecki, “How Other Cities Can Benefit from Silicon Valley,” Tech Crunch, February 2, 2017, accessed February 3, 2020,

Ann Gibbons, “The Salk Institute at a Crossroads,” Science 249, no. 4967 (July 1990): 360-62.

Brittany Meiling, “Why San Diego Missed the First Wave of Tech ‘Unicorns,’ and What’s Changing Now,” San Diego Union Tribune, March 8, 2019.

California Healthcare Institute, “The Millennium Report on the Bay Area Biomedical R&D Industry,”

Chris Jennewein, “San Diego Startups Compete for $100,000 in Qualcomm Funding,” Times of San Diego, June 15, 2017, accessed February 3, 2020,

Elise Reuter, “UCSD’s Tech Accelerator Gets $1 Million Boost,” San Diego Business Journal, October 29, 2018, 13.

Fiona E. Murray, “Evaluating the Role of Science Philanthropy in American Research Universities,” NBER Working Paper Series, #18146, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2012.

Harvard Stem Cell Institute, “Examining the Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research,” Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Spring 2007, accessed February 3, 2020,

Jon Cohen, “Salk Institute President to Step Down,” Science 285, no. 5433 (September 1999): 1469-70.

Jon Gertner, The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation (New York: Penguin Press, 2012).

Kristian Magori, “Interview with Luke Alphey, Biotechnology Expert at Pirbright Institute,” BugBitten, April 22, 2016, accessed February 3, 2020,

Luke Alphey, “Can CRISPER-Cas9 Gene Drives Curb Malaria?” Nature Biotechnology 34 (2016), 149-50.

Mary L. Walkshok and Abraham J. Shragge, Invention & Reinvention: The Evolution of San Diego’s Innovation Economy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014).

Mary L. Walshok and Josh D. Shapiro, “Beyond Tech Transfer: A More Comprehensive Approach to Measuring the Entrepreneurial University,” in Andrew C. Corbett et. al. eds., Academic Entrepreneurship: Creating an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 2014).

Monya Baker, “Neuroscience Institute to Move from Architectural Icon Into New Space,” Nature Newsblog, August 10, 2012, accessed February 3, 2020,

Nora Zamichow, “Prestigious Brain Research Group to Relocate in S.D.,” Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1991, SDA1.

Patricia A. Pelfrey, Entrepreneurial President: Richard Atkinson and the University of California: 1995-2003 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012).

Paul David, “The Historical Origins of Open Sciences: An Essay on Patronage, Reputation and Common Agency Contracting in the Scientific Revolution,” Capital & Society 3, no. 2 (2008): 1-103.

PR Newswire, “Evolving Markets in Telecommunications 2001 Conference Takes Place Today,” May 30, 2001.

Robert E. Kohler, Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists, 1900-1945 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

Ruth Marvin Webster, “Torrey Pines Mesa Serves as Mecca for Biomedical Research,” The Californian, October 23, 2000, 10.

Nora Zamichow, “Prestigious Brain Research Group to Relocate in S.D.,” Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1991, SDA1.

Stuart Henry, Lawrence Hinman, and Michael Kalichman, “A San Diego Milestone for Ethics in Science & Technology,” Center for Ethics in Science & Technology newsletter, no. 10 (Summer 2009): 1.

Sujit Dey, “Institute for the Global Entrepreneur,” Power Point presentation, November 2016, accessed February 3, 2020,,_Sujit_Dey.pdf.

“Tech S.D. Hire to Help Retain Talented Grads,” San Diego Business Journal, July 10, 2017, 3. See also, Interview with Kevin Carroll by Eric John Abrahamson, February 28, 2019.

“UC San Diego and Invention Science Fund Collaborate to Create New Technology Startup,” UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering, October 24, 2018.

“UC San Diego Names Ramesh Rao to QUALCOMM Endowed Chair in Telecommunications and Information Technologies,” Business Wire, April 9, 2004.

“UCSD Connect Recruits Top High-Tech Talent,” BusinessWire, October 6, 2004.

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